Mustafa KADAKAL

Mustafa KADAKAL

Mustafa KADAKAL

OSMANLILAR VE TÜRKLER

2 Mayıs 2014, by Mustafa kadakal, category Genel

Osmanlı Devleti yerini aldığı Roma gibi, çeşitli din, millet, dil kültürlerden oluşan Dünya İmparatorluğu olarak kurulmuştu, öyle de kaldı. Osmanlı hem Selçuklu ile Bizans’ın, hem de Doğunun (yani Karahanlıların, İranlıların, İlhanlıların, Arapların) devamıydı denilebilir. Bizans ülkelerini fetheden Osmanlılar, Bizans ile iç içe yan yana yaşadı, yüzyıllar süren ortaklık boyunca, Bizans kültürü Osmanlı’dan etkilendiği gibi; Osmanlı’nın de Bizans’tan etkilenmesi kaçınılmazdı. Batılı olsun, Türk olsun, tarihçiler, bu etkileşimi çoğu kez yalnız üst yönetimde, bürokraside, devletin varlık felsefesinde aradılar. Oysa, sözgelişi, kara veya renkli çarşafla, peçeyle örtünmesi geleneğinin, saray ve konaklardaki harem ve kızlar ağası kurumunun, eski İstanbul evlerindeki pencere kafeslerinin, Dünyanın “Türk Hamamı” olarak tanıdığı “Roma Hamamı’nın” hatta İslam Dinindeki “Suret” (resim/heykel) yasağının bile Bizans’tan alınmış olabileceğini gösteren kanıtlar vardır.

Osmanlı bütün kültürel kaynakların yaşayan bir bileşkesiydi. Ama kendini yenileyemedi. Bir yere geldi durdu varlığını yeniden yaratacak gelişmeleri izleyemediği için tükendi. Bu sonuç hemen bütün İmparatorlukların başına gelmiştir. İki Dünya Savaşını kazanan Büyük Britanya bitti; Sovyet İmparatorluğu dağıldı. A.B.D’de ise dünya egemenliğinin ne kadar süreceği konusu, dışarıya fazlaca yansıtılmadan tartışılıyor.

Osmanlı Devleti, tarım ekonomisi ile savaş (haraç) gelirlerine bağlı bir devlet olarak doğdu, öyle de kaldı. Gelişen sömürgeci endüstri ekonomisinin boy hedefi olarak yıkıldı. Ekonominin önemini anladı ama verimini arttıracak önlemleri alamadı. Türkolog Melikoff’un söylediği gibi: “Toprağa toprak kattı ama değere değer katamadı. Sömürgeci değil, varlığı koruyan (Statükocu) oldu. Çok sıkıştığında kendi insan kaynaklarını (Anadolu’yu) zorladı; toplumdan gelen tepkilerle, ayaklanmalarla uğraştı durdu. Akdeniz’e bir süre egemen oldu. Hint Okyanusu’na ulaştı; ama haraç için çıktığı çoğu savaşlara, denizle deryayı ekonomik amaçla ya da ticaret maksadıyla kullanamadı. Piri Reis gibi bir denizciyi yetiştirdi ve öldürdü; onun geliştirdiği deniz haritacılığından faydalanamadı.”

Cevdet Paşaya göre; “Toplumlar ya da kültürler, canlılar gibi doğar, gelişir ve göçerler. Devlet örgütü, bu canlı varlığın hekimi ya da ilacı gibidir; kaderini değiştirmese bile ömrünü uzatmaya çalışır.” Oysa doğup göçenler, toplum ya da kültürler değil, devlet kurumları/yönetim örgütleridir.

Her uygarlık, zirveye veya sona ulaştığında, kaygılanır, öz kaynaklarını araştırmaya başlar. Bu çaba Osmanlı’nın Tanzimat döneminde de görülmüştür. Türk tarihi yani ilk kimlik araştırmaları da böyle başlamıştır. Kendi köklerini arayan Osmanlı yüzyıllardır Osmanlı kimliğinde- veya gölgesinde- yaşayan göçebe Türk’ün varlığını da böyle keşfetmiştir. Temel soruya dönersek; “Kim kimin kimliğinde idi?” Osmanlı mı Türk’tü, yoksa Türkler mi Osmanlı? Dünyanın Osmanlı’yı “TÜRK” olarak gördüğü ama Osmanlı’yı “Devlet-i Aliyye” (Yüce Devlet veya Devletlerin yücesi) olarak adlandıran Osmanlı Ulemasının, Türk ve Türkmenleri küçümsemedikleri, hizmet ettikleri Devlet-i Aliyye ile onun kullarını yani kendilerini “TÜRK” saymadıkları aşikar bir şekilde anlaşılmaktadır.

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